Glossary and reporting of clinical signs

Observing and reporting clinical signs in laboratory animals is necessary for many reasons: the assessmentof animal welfare, compliance with the principle of refinement (e.g. humane endpoints), regulatory compliance (e.g. reporting severity) and, importantly, as a scientific outcome, e.g. in animal models of disease or safety studies. Developments in the reporting of clinical signs will enhance the scientific value gained from animal experiments and further address the ethical cost. This paper discusses systematic approaches to the observation and reporting of clinical signs in animals (to be) used for research. Glossaries from public and  corporate institutions have been consulted and a reference glossary has been set up, providing terminology to be tailored for institutional or project-specific use.